ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
BRI The Belt and Road Initiative
C40 C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group
CA 100+ Climate Action 100+
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CSP Concentrated solar power
DRC Democratic Republic of Congo
EU European Union
GCC The Gulf Cooperation Council
GDP Gross domestic product
GEI Global Energy Interconnection
GEIDCO Global Energy Interconnection Development and Cooperation
GW Gigawatt
ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability
IEA International Energy Agency
IMF International Monetary Fund
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency
ISA International Solar Alliance
LED Light-emitting diode
LNG Liquefied natural gas
MWh Megawatt hour
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NEPAD The New Partnership for Africa’s Development
OECD The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
OPEC The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
PV Photovoltaic
REMap Renewable Energy Roadmap
SDGs Sustainable Development Goals
SDS Sustainable Development Scenario
SIDS Small Island Developing States
SSA Sub-Saharan Africa
UAE United Arab Emirates
WHO World Health Organization
WTO World Trade Organization
UN United Nations
US DoD United States Department of Defense


Many individuals contributed to the Global Commission’s work over the course of its deliberations. The Commission is grateful for their support and acknowledges all their contributions.

Three Member States of IRENA—Germany, Norway and the United Arab Emirates —provided important political and financial support for the Commission’s activities, for which the Commission is extremely grateful. Additional financial support was received from the Government of the Netherlands.

A small Secretariat was responsible for all aspects of the Global Commission’s work. The Secretariat was led by Ruth McCoy and included Kingsmill Bond, Heather Carney-Graham, Abas Moussa, Marcin Scigan and Thijs Van de Graaf. Substantive research for the Commission’s report was carried out by Thijs Van de Graaf, who served as lead writer for the report, and Kingsmill Bond, expert analyst. Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Nazik Elhassan, Ruth McCoy, Marcin Scigan and Adrian Whiteman also provided inputs for the preparation of the report. The Secretariat received vital support from Ahmed Abdel-Latif and Mohamed El-Farnawany at IRENA throughout the process.

The Commission would like to recognize with gratitude the important contributions of several individuals who participated in a dialogue with Commission Members at their second meeting in Oslo: Ditlev Engel of DNV GL, Auke Lont of Statnett, Thierry Lepercq of Engie, Simone Mori of Enel, Helle Kirstoffersen of Total, Henrik Sætness of Statkraft, General Tom Middendorp, former Chief of Defense of the Armed Forces of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and Amory Lovins, the co-founder and chief scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute. The Commission also wishes to thank the Mayor of Reykjavik, the Minister of Communications, the Minister of Science, Reykjavik Energy and the Blue Lagoon for their hospitality during its third Meeting in Iceland.

The Report draws on various presentations and background papers from the following experts: Dolf Gielen, Adil Najam, Indra Overland, Daniel Scholten, Kirsten Westphal, Morgan Bazilian, Meghan O’Sullivan, Henning Wuester, Andreas Kraemer, Frank Radtke and Karen Smith Stegen. Written contributions from LuizBarroso, Rafael Ferreira, Sebastián Kind, Bent Erik Bakken, Sven Behrendt and the Climate Policy Initiative were gratefully received. Valuable feedback during the review process was received from Anna Charles, Rabia Ferroukhi, Neil MacDonald, Indra Overland, Elizabeth Press, Daniel Scholten, Kirsten Westphal andAdrian Whiteman. Robert Archer edited the Report, and Fairouz El Tom was responsible for its design and layout.

The Commission is also grateful for the support of the team at IRENA in Abu Dhabi, namely Damian Brandy, Daria Gazzola, Zoheir Hamedi, Manuela Stefanides, Sina Tabrizi, and staff from various departments including Communications, Finance, General Services, ICT and the Governance Support Office. Valuable assistance was also provided by the aides of the three supporting member countries and the Chair: Reshma Francy, Kerstin Klee, Kirsten Hammelbo, and Ástríður Jónsdóttir from the secretariat of the Arctic Circle.